Sometimes it is quite interesting to reflect on what actually can not say reliably.
And interesting, if you can find a partner for discussion. In such disputes are periodically born such thoughts, which then may be even the motto of the whole of human life ...
Today Editorial «MEDIACENTURY» picked up for you a few experiments that are based solely on the mind's perception of reality. The beauty of these problems were that they do not have the right answer. Everyone can defend his point of view and think of this more and more arguments, but it is possible to find an argument against ever ...
Mary RoomThe experiment was proposed by Frank Jackson.
"Mary - a brilliant scientist who specializes in vision neuroscience. Suppose that it has all the information possible about what people feel when they see the colorful items. For example, it is known for certain what combination of waves perceived by the human eye when looking at the red tomatoes, and what happens in the human central nervous system, when he sees them. But Mary is forced to live in a black-and-white room and work on a black and white monitor. Is Mary the new knowledge obtained when out of the room? "
In general, Mary knows everything about flowers, but other than shades of black and white, other colors she had never seen. This lets you know that the simple observation gives us the opportunity to explore all the properties of an object. In other words, we can not imagine what you do not know.
Trolley problemThere are many variations of this thought experiment, but first a description was published by English philosopher Philippa Foot in 1967.
"According to the rails with great speed moving heavy uncontrolled truck. On her way to the rails are attached to five people. You can translate the arrow, and then they will be saved, but in this case, the other person will die, which is also tied to the rails. "
Some people believe that the value of any action is measured by its usefulness, they will translate arrow to the cost of one life to save the lives of five, although formally it is they who are to blame for the death of this man. Others believe that it is better not to interfere, because even one person can not become an instrument for the salvation of five.
Spider in the urinalOne American scientist Thomas Nagel went to the toilet at Princeton University in the urinal and saw the spider. Every time he urinated, it seemed to him that the spider looks more and more depressed and sad. Here is a quote from an essay by Nagel.
"Every time I saw a spider in the urinal, his appearance more and more oppressed me. I understood that the urinal became his new environment, but only because he could not get over the smooth porcelain walls. It is clear that I had no way of knowing whether or not he wishes to leave the urinal or not. "
"One day, I took a piece of toilet paper and dropped it into the urinal. Spider grabbed the paper, I pulled it out and dropped to the floor. He sat there and did not move. I left, but when I returned a couple of hours, I saw that he was still sitting in the same place. And the next day there I found his body. "
This experiment shows that even the best acting of opinion, one can not know what will his intervention in a particular situation. Also, no one before the end can not know what is good for each member of a process.
Start from scratchAmerican John Rawls once offered an interesting experiment in the field of political philosophy.
Imagine that you and a group of people must be from scratch to build a new society. At the same time none of you know anything about the models of the device states, the philosophical principles, the achievements of various sciences, and even about their own capabilities. Question: What can agree to such persons unless they are guided by selfish and selfish motives?
Rawls believes that gradually would be worked out principles that would allow everyone to receive equal rights and freedoms to ensure, for example, education, employment and so on. But we have to admit that many scientists and philosophers have criticized this theory of absolute justice, considering it utopian.
Machine for the production of personal experienceAmerican Robert Nozick has developed a thought experiment, which alludes to the fact that people can really live in the Matrix.
Imagine that scientists have created a machine that is capable of stimulating different areas of the brain, just mimic any experience. For example, the feeling of reading the book, parachute jump and so on. Would you agree to spend my life, connected to such a device, but the feeling that you live a normal life?
The fact is that in the life we are largely devoid of choice, and then you yourself can decide when and what to feel. I think many people can find good reasons to connect to this unit.
This experiment was designed to show that people can not, in principle, to understand each other to the end, because they can not know what the source of their thinking.
Beetle in a box
Imagine that a group of people there are boxes that contain what they called beetles. But no one can see inside another box, each argues that by referring to his bug knows this is a bug.
At the same time during the discussion of the concept of "beetle" it loses its meaning because it comes down only to the concept of "something that is in the box." It is clear that every person in the course of the conversation involves only what is in his box, but no one can understand what is at stake.
At first glance it may seem that some of these experiments came up with the crazy. But do not jump to conclusions.
Try to use your brains hard and share your inferences in the comments on this item. And to you there were opponents or supporters in the debate, share this material with your friends and acquaintances!